Home FAQs Knowledge base Dance Trauma
---------------------------------------------- Article reprint Xuwen Wei, MD ----------------------------------
1. The injury patterns
Ballet trauma, 80 per cent lower limb injuries. The injured tissue to muscle strain most common, followed sequentially as tendons, ligaments. Three merger ratio of 60 per cent or more traumatic. The pathological changes, most muscle strain. Other ligament injuries, tendon sheath inflammation and then down. Three merger is the injury rate of over 60 per cent or more. And to the injured area to distinguish it, the ankle is the most common location of injury, followed sequentially as knee, hip, lower back, legs and thighs. Muscle injury according to their site to points, lower back muscles most vulnerable, followed by successively lower leg, foot, knee flexors, shoulders, neck, muscles and chest muscles fibula.
 
Lumbar muscle strain
Male dancers easily hurt when he lifts his companion on the lower back muscles, usually caused by poor technique. Female dancers dance coherent action is incorrect due.
Ankle Sprain
One of the most common injuries can be handled in accordance with the formal principles. Repeated sprains are more common. The position of training can prevent repeat injury.

Achilles tendonitis
Achilles is very important for dancers organizational structure, mild irritation are not uncommon. Female dancers with a thicker lining can cause inflammation of the Achilles tendon. Treatment includes rest, medication, physical therapy.
 
Qu thumb tendonitis and other tendon inflammation
In addition to the Achilles tendon, the thumb bent tendinitis, peroneal tendonitis and posterior tibial tendonitis may also occur. The song thumb tendinitis is most prevalent. When steppin ordinary patients complained of pain and sound. Rest and conservative treatment should improve conditions.

Jumping knee
This situation refers to the lower edge of the patella local pain and tenderness. The cause is a partial patellar ligament rupture, repeated injury, which led to a chronic condition. Common ligament granulation tissue, removal of granulation tissue can improve the condition.
Chondromalacia patella
Dance driven patella femoral under its oppression. He complained of knee pain, sound. Pain and noise oppression patella and femur occur. Arthroscopy can correct the condition of each period, and the treatment is based on different periods, can muscle balance training; arthroscopic debridement and lateral ligament relaxation technique, soft tissue and bone surgery again faithfully, faithfully re-surgery.

Knee cataract
Dance movements may hurt the meniscus, cartilage, ligaments, but the knee injury in general less common in dancers.

Triangular bone symptoms
After growing seven percent of people, after the separation of the talus sudden talar body still not together, known as triangular bone. It may be one reason the dancers ankle pain; general triangular bone is larger, easier to produce symptoms. If conservative treatment fails, the triangular bone resection will be an effective solution to the disease.
Fatigue fracture
In addition to the foregoing occurs in the femoral neck outside metatarsal foot of the site is also common. Distal fibula may also occur. For questions about the condition of the bone scan can provide early diagnosis.

Patellar subluxation syndrome
Over the dancers stretched knee patella little high, the projection of the outside of the Order of the tibia may result in adverse patella faithfully. Common systemic balance of strength training, knee pads, electrical stimulation; can effectively improve the condition. Six to twelve months to try, you can not improve the condition, we need to consider surgical treatment.

2. neck and upper limb injuries dance
Shoulder injury
Shoulder function was before the move. The main symptoms pressing against the edge and before Acromion Coraco-clavicular ligament. Classical ballet will not produce extrusion syndrome. Modern ballet is put on the ground with a lot of attitude. Thereby generating a lot of shoulder problems. Some are uncomfortable after exercise, and then in the movement to produce pain. Some of the pain is located in front of or Acromion large protrusions. Dancers may have pain or discomfort outreach and positive margin squeeze symptoms. If the biceps lesions, the biceps groove tenderness; straight lift arm pain. Impedance elbow and forearm supination pain and pain. Generally limit activities to rest and NSAID (non-steroidal anti-inflammatory analgesics of), should be able to improve the condition. Male dancers may occur. Biceps rupture. Elbow and wrist joints of tension may occur. Modern ballet may have serious sprain of the thumb and the second toe. Disposal includes dressing fifth finger and thumb fixed. Make the move possible synoviae inflammation, steroid injections can resolve the symptoms. Then dancing skills must be slightly flexible. Modern ballet may be a lot of head and arm activity, and therefore may produce the neck and shoulder tension, thus restricted neck movement.

Chest channel syndrome
This syndrome who have normal neurological examinations and radiation, the organization involved is often difficult or impossible to identify. Generally recognized as the support organization or ligament damage to the articular surface of the reason. Occasionally, there are likely to show symptoms of muscle. It is based on the severity of symptoms depending on the process. Analgesics, anti-inflammatory agents, soft collar or muscle relaxants can be used. Sometimes, neck discomfort accompanied by intermittent numbness, pain, heavy flu and fatigue. This syndrome may involve a range of brachial plexus seventh cervical to the first thoracic vertebrae. Three minutes and thirty seconds on the lift arm brachial plexus compression, pain or numbness may increase becomes powerful. Radiological examination of the neck bones sometimes found. Including rest and avoid triggering symptoms of dancing, except for physical therapy may also be considered on the process.
This syndrome can happen in a classical or modern. All this pain, neck muscles can occur. The symptoms may occur with throwing related. The most conservative treatment can be effective.

Brachial plexus injury
Such damage may have upper limb weakness, applying downward pressure on the shoulders, around the neck swing fast or neck turn, are likely to generate nerve traction injury. In general, male dancers such injuries occur more often. Excessive dancing on the move and is the cause of neck injury. Sometimes that may occur before the giant muscle paralysis spontaneity. General prognosis is good. Or may be due to post-extrusion arm neuritis. Pull the arm might cause such harm.

Neck Injury
Headache, pain behind the ear blood flow, surface instability, visual impairment or difficulty swallowing are possible symptoms. Forced flexion or stretching of the neck are the possible causes of conservative treatment is the principle of treatment.

3. The back injury
Back injuries can occur at any age, sex or level of dancers, which is very common dance injuries. Its frequency is about the fourth kind of hurt. Usually are more serious back injury, and sometimes may have to rest a few weeks, months or an entire season of dance. Typically a single sprains, falls or overuse injuries are the reason. Examination should include the back, the whole body faithfully, scope of activities, the relative strength and flexibility. Dancers dancing and patterns also need a detailed assessment can be successfully treated to prevent re-injury. Obesity, muscle weakness, muscle membrane tension waist, knee flexion stiffness and reduced speed is a risk factor. As always, intensive training abdominal, back, waist and knee-steps to increase muscle flexibility is likely to solve the problem of back pain. Dancers often thin, good flexibility, but often excessive lordosis. These phenomena, must be carefully observed dancers perform before they can find the problem. Training error, intensity, frequency, or patterns often starts injury. The intervertebral plate, ligaments, muscles and tendons may be injured. Dancing technique possible back injury is the second reason. Maintain the balance of the lower back patterns. Avoid excessive lumbar lordosis or pelvic tilt, it is a good basic dancing. Excessive lordosis dancing must be avoided. Back must avoid stretching movements. Dancing often rely on good abdominal and back muscles. Lordosis posture often reflected faithfully abnormal anatomy of muscle imbalance or poor dancing (including poor translocation operation). On the move for male dancers are often dangerous. Shoes wear surface and the stage, back pain may also be causes.
Jazz with high heels or in hard dance stage surface often causes back pain. When some professional dance companies and dancers contracted, often noted, not in the cement stage performances. The reason for the rapid growth is the back pain the young dancers. At this time, the back often soft deteriorated because the rapid bone growth. Opposing muscles and tendons become tight relationship. Teen Dancer, due to rapid growth, and participation in summer training, to practice eight hours a day, poor abdominal, back lordosis increase, poor indexing technology, all of which are likely causes of back pain.

Back pain patterns
It can be classified on the back sprains, low back pain and spine crack

Upper back strain
Upper back muscles and scapular muscles hurt next, then men and women dancers are likely to occur. Male dancers are often acute tendon injury, usually on the move or bad for the balance of the situation. When and female dancers need for high lift arm and swiveling action can also occur on the back sprain. The process includes water jet massage or frozen, can relieve symptoms. Now massage can reduce muscle spasm and limit movement. Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agents can reduce muscle stiffness and accelerate recovery. Training or ice massage before exercise can reduce pain, heat and massage stiff after training period can be shortened. And also speed recovery and muscle strengthening to avoid recurrence.

Lower Back Pain
Young dancers most common back condition is a mechanical low back pain. Excessive lordosis posture to stand at the back and on the move often act as mechanical causes of back pain. However intervertebral plate back pain, spine crack, inflammation or tumor of the situation must be carefully excluded. It must strengthen the abdominal strength and avoid excessive lordosis action on treatment. Sometimes you need to wear a back frame, and the time required four to six months. In this case, there is a relatively low recurrence rate.
Back pain caused by intervertebral plate may also occur. Usually occurs in male dancers, which is still associated with lower back related to excessive lordosis, treatment is mainly a conservative disposition. Strengthen abdominal and back muscles, clip and stop the action on the move is the main treatment project. Also swimming can also be used as an adjuvant therapy. If you are serious intervertebral plate prominent persons, you have complete bed rest, local hyperthermia, pain and muscle relaxants. Papaya 酉每 (enzyme) of the injection treatment can be considered. If you need surgery for intervertebral plate, the dancers have to rest about 10 months, while widely the rehabilitation must be fully implemented.

Cracked spine
The probability of occurrence of the dancers, and gymnasts roughly the same, but much higher than the general population. The reason is that repeated bending and straight spine operation, and cause. Jazz dancers and ballet dancers, the probability of occurrence is probably similar, because back bend and principles of their training is the same. Dancer persistent back pain, it must be carefully assessed.
Usually standing on one foot while stretching back extreme, it is the early signs of back pain. Such patients usually lumbar spine movement is limited, especially forward, and the other will produce extreme back pain when done. If back pain is caused when one side is extremely stretched, then standing unilateral arch may break. Generally it will be relatively stiff knee flexors, without any neurological symptoms, but occasionally merge sciatica. Radiographic evaluation should include shines, this may be the most important basis for diagnosis. When early, sometimes need to do bone scans to detect it early. Treatment, and during the onset of age should be considered. Pain less than six months, must be treated as a fracture. Anti lordosis clip to recover and fixed, you must first try. Increase the absorption of radioactive isotopes, which means bone healing in addition to clip, the anti-lordosis muscle strengthening exercise can also promote bone healing. Spondyloschisis and consolidated first-degree spine abdicate, not entirely represent the end of the career of the dancer. Back pain may just crack the spine, with new back sprain. Avoid the pain of technology, jump, prevent lordosis strengthen training and abdominal muscles, often can remove the pain and recovery Almighty dance activities. Vertebrate crack dancers, often have a stable back, and can safely dance. Though perhaps not very comfortable, if conservative treatment is not effective in improving the condition, spinal fixation will be able to effectively remove the pain and recovery Almighty dance.

Prevention
Some fixed steps can be used to prevent the occurrence of back pain or relieve pain. Male and female dancers with special emphasis on young people, students practice when the teacher should pay special attention to the back lordosis posture. Auxiliary strengthen abdominal and back training increased flexibility must be strengthened. Correct execution and strengthen the abdominal muscles assist the movement of the older dancers, dance techniques must be emphasized. Male dancers should pay attention to proper dancing on the move to avoid lordosis and move through the feet. Assisted gravity body training is also a considerable help. The full warm-up exercise before the dance is beyond re-emphasize. Especially for the younger dancers should strengthen this concept. About thirty minutes before stretching is necessary to practice or rehearse it.

The hip injury
Dancers must be able to fully control the body's joints, and hip is special emphasis lies. This site is the most visible on stage joint. So it is important to look for dancers. Not only focus on classical ballet, but also all over the world are required to dance to hip external rotation and abduction. This is the basic principle of prehistoric and classical dance. All dances must have transformed a fully developed.
Young children entered the dance school began, there is the basic operation training. In six to twelve-year-old child began ballet training better able to develop transformation action.
After more than twelve years, the results of this training is relatively good. Conversion must be done because the hip capsule. Because the ductility of collagen tissue is relatively poor, and therefore microscopic fracture may occur, and the formation of scar tissue, which can have a transforming action. Classical ballet in France's warm-up and stretching the law, then the class and rehearsal. This stretch of training done slowly to allow the hip joint capsule of the tension, slowly and steady development, so microscopic damage kept to a minimum level. Dancers with soft joints, the then further compare adult career without difficulty, even in relatively large age training begins. Conversion difficulties may cause some problems. In youth or adult dancers, the day forced abduction of static-like posture, the acetabular part may have calcification. If the conversion dancers tension, the hip might abduction. This is the inside of the joint capsule may cause tension. In forcing the hip on the outside. And over time, it may femoral neck bone superfluous. Connected with the transformation of the problem is not big, because that is the maximum amount of basic daily activities. After eleven years since, neck transformation difficult, and affect the conversion action. And most men usually begin in adolescence learning dance, because the conversion male dancers are almost done by the hip capsule. Professional dancer day practice six hours a week training six days. Such reuse hip in the maximum limit of its movement, can easily lead to overuse syndrome.
Degradation will lead to movement restrictions, which are rare outside the single reason for the loss of turn. Male dancer higher and heavier, jump high, so the four or five years of age, arthritis is often a significant problem. Softness dancers hip, often blinded by the severity of joint degeneration, and the dancer's talent and skills and a high degree of drive driving heart of object-oriented personality, often blinded by a little stiff and painful joints, arthritis until late. Unfortunately, some of the dancers career, due to the shortened hip arthritis. Unfortunately, if softness and strengthening exercises technically correct, then this situation can be improved.

Fatigue fracture
Dancers may be fuzzy type pain, but without loss of activity, and radiation and no apparent fracture or arthritis. The upper neck fatigue fracture may occur in a few weeks or a few months. When the upper edge of the femoral neck fractures by, the first symptoms are very mild, but eventually the pain to stop dancing required. These fractures are often difficult to diagnose, and must rely on special tests such as a bone scan and a partial perspective radiography. Treatment includes limiting dance with crutches. Until symptoms show changes and radiation bone healing. Repeat bone scan is sometimes necessary. Physical therapy exercises may be active in the water, so the body was kept with the dancers and to allow recovery of softness. Side of the symptoms used as foot work. Proper softness in the formal curriculum must be completed. We must avoid recurrence.

Acute muscle injury
In large companies, the dancers often throughout the year by appointment. Often the nature of the dancers performing career is based on the season. And six to eight months a year was hired. Period. Dancers may be no classes nor practice. This will lead to muscle stiffness, loss of physical fitness. Loss of ligament and tendon flexibility. After the dance began a full schedule rules. However, the lack of fitness of the deployment, the deployment of the loss of mental function, will likely lead to further injury. Any muscle near the hip may be injured. The most common adductor tendons of the muscles and hip flexion of. Knee flexor strain often occurs in the lower edge of the ischial tuberosity and pubic. Lacerations may occur in one-third of the peaks above the muscle. Short head of the biceps may be strained. The distal end of the outer thigh may ache. Adductor strain of possible starting point is to the Feng Yao or pubic. Within a few days symptoms may occur, the diagnosis no difficulty. Usually have tenderness in a particular place, and the reduction in the hip and flexion and often pain. Treatment includes strengthening anti-inflammatory analgesics, heat, ultrasound, softness, the warm-up and rehearsal time is reduced until the symptoms disappear. Sometimes you need complete rest for about three to five days. It is important to understand the strained muscle, originated from the dancers of inactivity. So the dancers during treatment should not be limited to dance. Strengthen the softness of the rehabilitation work is a very important part.

Tendinitis and muscle inflammation
Strain will cause the heaviest chronic tendinitis. Symptoms of soft tissue pain may be accompanied by batch beat sound. The strongest hip flexor muscle intestine may occur. Chronic muscle inflammation is often bilateral. Dancers may feel both sides of the groin has granted beat sound. Often occur early in the morning, and when the warm open, the symptoms disappear, but one hour after school will emerge. Dance lessons usually unnecessary interruption. Physical examination often found in lower muscle of the edge seam along the outside of the femoral head and Triangle, there will be tenderness. Symptoms include heat treatment, anti-inflammatory analgesic, and strengthening of softness.

Bursitis
This situation is sometimes very troublesome. Usually located where the greater trochanter. Symptoms include pain and tenderness. Sometimes occur in front of the hip capsule. Usually occurs due to lack of activity during rest, improper warm-up or poor technique. Usually it occurs in the role of changes in practice or attempt to stimulate more time without supervision under the new dancing. Treatment includes anti-inflammatory analgesic agents, heat and ultrasound. Strengthen the abductors and adductors of outside is also very important. Bursitis often very short, only a few days of symptoms, but sometimes will continue for about two, three weeks.

Sound bombs
Usually near joints is common. Zhang muscle membrane dancers often occurs over the greater trochanter. The young dancers occur more frequently. Often produce sound when jumping to the ground from. Hip flexion forward, then straight, then may produce noise and pain. When the tendon and then slip back when the rotor is too large, the pelvis was forced into the position lordosis. Dancers will run away like a dislocation of the hip feel. Diagnosis must observe the jump. The hand placed greater trochanter, and when the dancers bend or stretch when hip. Will be feeling slide ligaments. No bones are usually normal place. Treatment includes strengthening outreach and extensors. This condition can occur on both sides, thereby enhancing the softness of both sides must simultaneously. When softness significantly improved, correct the warm-up and correct the gain dancing, the symptoms may disappear. Further noise may also occur in the deep groin. When foot from posture flexion abduction, external rotation of the knee extension may occur. When hip flexion forty-five degrees, is the location of the sound possible. Sound by former tactile. Since the intestinal muscle over in front of the hip. Normal is sound and pain. This situation is also likely to occur in young the dancers.

Neuritis
Dancers are generally light and thin, not a lot of adipose tissue, so when the cheating, there is the risk of injury of the sciatic nerve. Buttocks the ground, it may dampen the sciatic nerve. And there are local of tenderness and paresthesia. Pain may extend to the back of the thigh muscle in the rotation of the hip. Treatment includes stretching, inflammation analgesics and heat. Reducing the amount of required courses. Usually six to eight weeks to recover.

Thumbs disease
No special attention to sports injury when the thumb. However, it is as important as other body joints. These symptoms not only pain, but also impede the proper use of the foot. Dancer to be difficult to maintain a normal external rotation of the foot. This will lead to other parts of the injured under.

Congenital lesions
Metatarsal recurved, short first metatarsal column.

Metatarsal recurved
It is leading to renewal of the hallux valgus disease. He appeared in the child period. Hallux valgus early stage disease, and continued increases. General need surgery, cut stocks corrected. Usually after surgery can stop the growth. If you perform surgery while correct, does not affect the right after dancing career. When Hallux valgus relatively late occurrence of disease, the surgery must be executed after retirement. Treatment of common lined, at first, under the second toe with soft support the design, the first column of short metatarsal usually cause instability. Occurred in the first metatarsal, there will be difficulties in the conduction of gravity. The feet have a barrier. This will hurt to the proximal end of the ankles or feet and torso. So weight must be placed correctly. There is no surgical method can be corrected, but only pay attention to technology, to maintain the appearance of good.

Acquired disease
Hallux valgus disease, stiff big toe disease, toes deformity, and trauma nail condition.

Hallux valgus disease
Conservatively treated. Can the inner liner to prevent the partial pressure. Also can prevent infection. Available in the animal skin or sponge mats.

Hallux stiff disease
Between the first metatarsal joint degeneration for Dancer is a very serious problem. This usually occurs early. Youth can occur dorsiflexion difficult. It will continue and worsen, stiffness increased. Typically feet problems. Such termination male and female dancers often acting career. If a student investigation out of this situation, tend to make students lose the desire to convert to the professional dancer and courage. In eighteen if less than forty-five degrees dorsiflexion, it is a very serious situation. However, some people have to change the dancing continued successfully in dance. Physical therapy may be some help. However, for diseases were still powerless. The deterioration of its speed, is often difficult to predict. If it is a stable professional actor to hip replacement surgery may be able to change the condition.

Interphalangeal joint deformity
Mild deformity very common. Usually do not cause symptoms or particularly difficult. If symptoms are pain or obvious external bias, you can adopt toes fixation.

Toenail condition
The most common situation is the nail in the students. Common nails have a greater potential Curve. Also nail scissors is incorrectly also possible causes. Nail too short can not repair. Common animal skins to make available within the pad. If you can not improve the situation, the need for proper nail trimming. Also under the nail may also produce bone superfluous. Normal radiation confirm the diagnosis. Surgical resection is the treatment of choice.

Trauma
The general effect is metatarsal joint capsule and ligaments. Usually sudden violence arising. Common symptoms of overload is triggered. Other longus tendon of the lacerations may occur. The proximal or distal phalanx fracture may also occur. Its processing in accordance with normal principles for treatment.